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Microscopic objects

In order to make the best use of the research necessary to determine what type or kind of the object will work. This is very important because defines the required arsenal of methods and techniques.

           The main division of microscopic objects can be drawn by their optical properties and their differences in structure, size, details and general dimensions. The value of structural details can vary widely, but the minimum value is determined by resolution of the theory, the value of which is determined by diffraction and can not be less than 0.2 mm (in the visible region of the spectrum).

             There are two main groups - transparent (biological and other) and opaque (ore, coal, minerals, metals, etc.) objects.

            Objects within each of these groups can be amplitude or phase. Amplitude objects change the amplitude of the light and can have selectivity in different parts of the spectral range, have a variety of transmission or reflection coefficients as a function of the wavelength of light, their study does not present any difficulties. Phase change drugs, basically, only its phase, which is not sensitive to some receivers (including the eyes), so these objects in an ordinary microscope can not be seen. They are selective in the visible range but may have different absorption in the infrared or ultraviolet regions. To observe such objects require additional special devices.

           All objects can be isotropic or anisotropic, that is, may or may not have optical uniformity in different directions. Objects can be anisotropic crystals, minerals, ores, as well as some biological objects. For the detection of anisotropy requires the use of the microscope in the additional special devices.

          In addition, some objects can not only absorb or reflect, but also emit light when exposed to light falling on the object (fluorescence). In this case also requires the use of the microscope in the additional special devices.

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